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2018北京高考英语试题【Word真题试卷】

2018-06-09 11:41:53文/李男

2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试

英语(北京卷)

第一部分:知识运用(共两节,45分)

第一节单项填空(共15小题;每小题1分,共15分)

从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,

并在答题卡上:将该项涂黑。

例:it'ssonicetohearfromheragain__,welastmetmorethanthirtyyearsago.

A.what'smore

B.That’stosay

C.Inotherwords

D.Believeitornot

答案是D。

  1. -Hi,I'mPeter.Areyounewhere?Ihaven'tseenyouaround?

-Hello,Peter.I'mBob.Ijust__onMonday.

A.start

B.havestarted

C.started

D.hadstarted

2.__wedon'tstopclimatechange,manyanimalsandplantsintheworldwillbegone.

A.Although

B.While

C.If

D.Until

3.__alongtheoldSilkRoadisaninterestingandrewardingexperience

A.Travel

B.Traveling

C.Havingtraveled

D.Traveled

4.Susanhadquitherwell-paidjoband__asavolunteerintheneighborhood.whenIvisitedherlastyear

A.isworking

B.wasworking

C.hasworked

D.hadworked

5.Sheandherfamilybicycletowork,helpsthemkeepfit

A.which

B.who

C.as

D.that

6.DuringtheMid-AutumnFestival,familymembersoftengathertogether__ameal,admirethemoonandenjoymooncakes.

A.share

B.toshare

C.havingshared

D.shared

7.China'shigh-speedrailwaysfrom9,000to25,000kilometersinthepastfewyears.

A.aregrowing

B.havegrown

C.willgrow

D.hadgrown

8.Inanyunsafesituation,simply__thebuttonandahighly-trainedagentwillgetyouthehelpyouneed.

A.press

B.topress

C.pressing

D.pressed

9.Arescueworkerriskedhislifesavingtwotouristswho__inthemountainsfortwodays.

A.aretrapping

B.havebeentrapped

C.weretrapping

D.hadbeentrapped

10.Ordinarysoap,__correctly,candealwithbacteriaeffectively.

A.used

B.touse

C.using

D.use

11.Withouthissupport,wewouldn'tbe__wearenow.

A.how

B.when

C.where

D.why

12.Intoday'sinformationage,thelossofdata__causeseriousproblemsforacompany.

A.need

B.should

C.can

D.must

13.Theymighthavefoundabetterhotelifthey__afewmorekilometers.

A.drove

B.woulddrive

C.weretodrive

D.haddriven

14.-Goodmorning,Mr.lee'soffice.

-Goodmorning.I'dliketomakeanappointment__nextWednesdayafternoon.

A.for

B.on

C.in

D.at

15.Thisis__myfatherhastaughtme-toalwaysfacedifficultiesandhopeforthebest.

A.how

B.which

C.the

D.what

第二节完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,共30分)

   阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

TheHomelessHero

   Formany,findinganunattendedwalletfilledwith£400incashwouldbeasource(来源)oftemptation(诱惑).Butthe 16 wouldnodoubtbegreaterifyouwerelivingonthestreetswithlittlefoodandmoney.AllofthismakestheactionsofthehomelessTomSmith17moreremarkable.

   Afterspottinga18 onthefrontseatinsideaparkedcarwithitswindowdown,hestoodguardintherainforabouttwohourswaitingforthe19toreturn.

   Afterhoursinthecoldandwet,he20 insideandpulledthewalletouthopingtofindsomeIDsohecouldcontact(联系)thedriver,onlyto 21 itcontained£400innotes,withanother£50insparechangebesideit.

   Hethentookthewallettoanearbypolicestationafter22 anotebehindtolettheownerknowitwassafe.Whenthecar’sownerJohnAndersonandhiscolleagueCarolLawrencereturnedtothecar-whichwasitselfworth£35,000—inGlasgowcitycentre,theywere  23 tofindtwopolicemenstandingnexttoit.ThepolicementoldthemwhatMr.Smithdidandthatthewalletwas 24 .

   ThepairwerelaterabletothankMr.Smithforhis 25.

   Mr.Andersonsaid:“"Icouldn’tbelievethattheguynevertookapenny.Tothinkheissleepingonthestreetstonight 26 hecouldhavestolenthemoneyandpaidforaplacetostayin.Thisguyhasnothingand 27 hedidn'ttakethewalletforhimself;hethoughtaboutothers 28 it’sunbelievable.Itjustprovesthereare 29guysoutthere.”

   Mr.smith’sact 30 muchofthepublic’sattention.HealsowonpraisefromsocialmediausersafterMr.Anderson 31 abouttheactofkindnessonFacebook.

NowMr.Andersonhassetupanonlinecampaignto  32  moneyfor

Mr.Smithandotherhomelesspeopleinthearea,whichbyyesterdayhadreceived£8,000.“Ithinkthefaiththateveryonehasshown  33  himhastouchedhim.Peoplehavebeenapproachinghiminthestreet;he'shaIjob  34  andallsorts,”Mr.Andersoncommented.

ForMr.Smith,thisisapossiblelife-changing  35  .Thestoryonceagaintellsusthatonegoodturndeservesanother.

16.

A.hope

B.aim

C.urge

D.effort

17.

A.still

B.even

C.ever

D.once

18.

A.wallet

B.bag

C.box

D.parcel

19.

A.partner

B.colleague

C.owner

D.policeman

20.

A.turned

B.hid

C.stepped

D.reached

21.

A.discover

B.collect

C.check

D.believe

22.

A.taking

B.leaving

C.reading

D.writing

23.

A.satisfied

B.excited

C.amused

D.shocked

24.

A.safe

B.missing

C.found

D.seen

25.

A.service

B.support

C.kindness

D.encouragement

26.

A.when

B.if

C.where

D.because

27.

A.rather

B.yet

C.already

D.just

28.

A.too

B.though

C.again

D.instead

29.

A.honest

B.polite

C.rich

D.generous

30.

A.gave

B.paid

C.cast

D.drew

31.

A.learned

B.posted

C.cared

D.heard

32.

A.borrow

B.raise

C.save

D.earn

33.

A.of

B.at

C.for

D.in

34.

A.details

B.changes

C.offers

D.applications

35.

A.lesson

B.adventure

C.chance

D.challenge

第二部分:阅读理解(共两节,40分)

第一节(共15小题:每小题2分,共30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最仁选项,并

在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

MyFirstMarathon(马拉松)

Amonthbeforemyfirstmarathon,oneofmyankleswasinjuredandthismeantnotrunningfortwoweeks,leavingmeonlytwoweekstotrain.Yet,Iwasdeterminedtogoahead.

Irememberbacktomy7thyearinschool.InmyfirstP.E.class,theteacherrequiredustorunlapsandthenhitasoftball.Ididn'tdoeitherwell.HelaterinformedmethatIwas“notathletic”.

TheideathatIwas"notathletic"stuckwithmeforyears.WhenIstartedrunninginmy30s,Irealizedrunningwasabattleagainstmyself,notaboutcompetitionorwhetherornotIwasathletic.Itwasallaboutthebattleagainstmyownbodyandmind.Atestofwills!

Thenightbeforemymarathon,IdreamtthatIcouldn'tevenfindthefinishline.Iwokeupsweatingandnervous,butreadytoprovesomethingtomyself.

Shortlyaftercrossingthestartline,myshoelaces(鞋带)becameuntied.SoIstoppedtoreadjust.NotthestartIwanted!

Atmile3,Ipassedasign:“GOFORIT,RUNNERS!”

Bymile17,Ibecameoutofbreathandtheonceinjuredanklehurtbadly.Despitethepain,Istayedthecoursewalkingabitandthenrunningagain.

Bymile21,Iwasstarving!

AsIapproachedmile23,Icouldseemywifewavingasign.Sheismybiggestfan.Shenevermindedthealarmclocksoundingat4a.m.orquestionedmyexpensesonrunning.

Iwasoneofthefinalrunnerstofinish.ButIfinished!AndIgotamedal.Infact,Igotthesamemedalastheonethattheguywhocameinfirstplacehad.

Determinedtobemyself,,moveforward,freeofshameandworldlylabels(世俗标签),Icannowcallmyselfa"marathonwinner”.

36.Amonthbeforethemarathon,theauthor .

A.waswelltrained

B.feltscared

C.madeuphismindtorun

D.Lost hope

37.WhydidtheauthormentiontheP.E.classinhis7thyear?

A.Toacknowledgethesupportofhisteacher.

B.Toamusethereaderswithafunnystory.

C.Toshowhewasnottalentedinsports.

D.Toshareapreciousmemory.

38.Howwastheauthor'sfirstmarathon?

A.Hemadeit.

B.Hequithalfway.

C.Hegotthefirstprize.

D.Hewalkedtotheend.

39.Whatdoesthestorymainlytellus?

A.Amanoweshissuccesstohisfamilysupport.

B.Awinnerisonewithagreateffortofwill.

C.Failureisthemotherofsuccess.

D.Oneisnevertoooldtolearn.

B

FindYourAdventureattheSpaceandAviation(航空)Center

Ifyou'relookingforauniqueadventure,theSpaceandAviationCenter(SAC)istheplacetobe.TheCenteroffersprogramsdesignedtochallengeandinspirewithhands-ontasksandlotsoffun.

Morethan750,000havegraduatedfromSAC,withmanyseekingemploymentinengineering,aviation,education,medicineandawidevarietyofotherprofessions.Theycometocamp,wantingtoknowwhatitisliketobeanastronautorapilot,andtheyleavewithreal-worldapplicationsforwhatthey'restudyingintheclassroom.

 Forthetrainees,theprogramsalsoofferagreatway

toearnmeritbadges(荣誉徽章).AtSpaceCamp,traineescanearntheirSpaceExplorationbadgeastheybuildandfiremodelrockets,learnaboutspacetasksandtrysimulated(模拟)flyingtospacewiththecrewfromallovertheworld.TheAviationChallengeprogramgivestraineesthechancetoearntheirAviationbadge.Theylearntheprinciplesofflightandtesttheiroperatingskillsinthecockpit(驾驶舱)ofavarietyofflightsimulators.TraineesalsogetagoodstartontheirWildernessSurvivalbadgeastheylearnaboutwater-and

land-survivalthroughdesignedtasksandtheirsearchandrescueof“downed"pilot.

Withalltheprograms,teamworkiskeyastraineeslearntheimportanceofleadershipandbeingpartofabiggertask.

Allthisfunisavailableforages9to18.Familiescanenjoytheexperiencetogether,too,withFamilyCampprogramsforfamilieswithchildrenasyoungas7.

Stayanhourorstayaweek--thereissomethinghereforeveryone!

Formoredetails,pleasevisitusonlineatwww.oursac.com.

40.WhydopeoplecometoSAC?

A.Toexperienceadventures.

B.Tolookforjobsinaviation.

C.Togetadegreeinengineering.

D.Tolearnmoreaboutmedicine.

41.ToearnaSpaceExplorationbadge,atraineeneedsto   .

A.flytospace.

B.getanAviationbadgefirst.

C.studytheprinciplesofflight.

D.buildandfiremodelrockets.

42.Whatisthemostimportantfortrainees?

A.Leadership.

B.Teamspirit.

C.Taskplanning.

D.Survivalskills.

C

Plastic-EatingWorms

Humansproducemorethan300milliontonsofplasticeveryyear.Almosthalfofthatwindsupinlandfills(垃圾填埋场),andupto12milliontonspollutetheoceans.qSofarthereisnoeffectivewaytogetridofit,butanewstudysuggestsananswermaylieinthestomachsofsomehungryworms.

ResearchersinSpainandEnglandrecentlyfoundthatthewormsofthegreaterwaxmothcanbreakdownpolyethylene,whichaccountsfor40%ofplastics.Theteamleft100waxwormsonacommercialpolyethyleneshoppingbagfor12hours,andthewormsconsumedandbrokedownabout92milligrams,oralmost3%ofit.Toconfirmthattheworms'chewingalonewasnotresponsibleforthepolyethylenebreakdown,the

researchersmadesomewormsintopaste(糊状物)andappliedittoplasticfilms.14hourslaterthefilmshadlost13%oftheirmass--apparentlybrokendownbyenzymes(酶)fromtheworms'stomachs.TheirfindingswerepublishedinCurrentBiologyin2017.

FedericaBertocchini,co-authorofthestudy,saystheworms'abilitytobreakdowntheireveryday food-beeswax--alsoallowsthemtobreakdownplastic"Waxisacomplexmixture,butthebasicbondinpolyethylene,thecarbon-carbonbond,isthere

aswell,"sheexplains."Thewaxwormevolvedamethodorsystemtobreakthisbond."

JenniferDebruyn,amicrobiologistattheUniversityofTennessee,whowasnotinvolvedinthestudy,saysitisnotsurprisingthatsuchwormscanbreakdownpolyethylene.Butcomparedwithpreviousstudies,shefindsthespeedofbreakingdowninthisoneexciting.Thenextstep,DeBruynsays,willbetoidentifythecauseofthebreakdown.Isitanenzymeproducedbythewormitselforbyitsgutmicrobes(肠道微生物)?

Bertocchiniagreesandhopesherteam’sfindingsmightonedayhelpemploytheenzymetobreakdownplasticsinlandfills.Butsheexpectsusingthechemicalinsomekindofindustrialprocess-notsimply"millionsofwormsthrownontopoftheplastic.”

43.Whatcanwelearnaboutthewormsinthestudy?

A.Theytakeplasticsastheireverydayfood.

B.Theyarenewlyevolvedcreatures.

C.Theycanconsumeplastics.

D.Theywindupinlandfills.

44.AccordingtoJenniferDeBruyn,thenextstepofthestudyisto .

A.identifyothermeansofthebreakdown

B.findoutthesourceoftheenzyme

C.confirmtheresearchfindings

D.increasethebreakdownspeed

45.Itcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatthechemicalmight .

A.helptoraiseworms

B.helpmakeplasticbags

C.beusedtocleantheoceans

D.beproducedinfactoriesinfuture

46.Whatisthemainpurposeofthepassage?

A.Toexplainastudymethodonworms.

B.Tointroducethedietofaspecialworm.

C.Topresentawaytobreakdownplastics.

D.Toproposenewmeanstokeepeco-balance.

D

PreparingCitiesforRobotCars

Thepossibilityofself-drivingrobotcarshasoftenseemedlikeafuturist'sdream,yearsawayfrommaterializingintherealworld.Well,thefutureisapparentlynow.TheCaliforniaDepartmentofMotorVehiclesbegangivingpermitsinAprilforcompaniestotesttrulyself-drivingcarsonpublicroads.Thestatealsoclearedthewayforcompaniestosellorrentoutself-drivingcars,andforcompaniestooperatedriverlesstaxiservices.California,itshouldbenoted,isn'tleadingthewayhere.Companieshavebeentestingtheirvehiclesincitiesacrossthecountry.It'shardtopredictwhen

driverlesscarswillbeeverywhereonourroads.Buthoweverlongittakes,thetechnologyhasthepotentialtochangeourtransportationsystemsandourcities,forbetterorforworse,dependingonhowthetransformationisregulated.

Whilemuchofthedebatesofarhasbeenfocusedonthesafetyofdriverlesscars(andrightfullyso),policymakersalsoshouldbetalkingabouthowself-drivingvehiclescanhelpreducetrafficjams,cutemissions(排放)andoffermoreconvenient,affordable

mobilityoptions.Thearrivalofdriverlessvehiclesisachancetomakesurethatthosevehiclesareenvironmentallyfriendlyandmoreshared.

Dowewanttocopy-orevenworsen-thetrafficoftodaywithdriverlesscars?Imagineafuturewheremostadultsownindividualself-drivingvehicles.Theytoleratelong,slowjourneystoandfromworkonpackedhighwaysbecausetheycanwork,entertainthemselvesorsleepontheride,whichencouragesurbanspread.Theytaketheirdriverlesscartoanappointmentandsettheemptyvehicletocirclethebuildingtoavoidpayingforparking.Insteadofwalkingafewblockstopickupachildorthedrycleaning,theysendtheself-drivingminibus.Theconvenienceevenleadsfewerpeopletotakepublictransport——anunwelcomesideeffectresearchershavealreadyfoundinride-hailing(叫车)services.

AstudyfromtheUniversityofCaliforniaatDavissuggestedthatreplacingpetrol-poweredprivatecarsworldwidewithelectric,self-drivingandsharedsystemscouldreducecarbonemissionsfromtransportation80%andcutthecostoftransportationinfrastructure

(基础设施)andoperations40%by2050.Feweremissionsandcheapertravelsoundprettyappealing.Thefirstcommerciallyavailabledriverlesscarswillalmostcertainlybefieldedbyride-hailingservices,consideringthecostofself-drivingtechnologyaswellasliabilityandmaintenanceissues(责任与维护问题).Butdriverlesscarownershipcouldincreaseasthepricesdropandmorepeoplebecomecomfortable withthetechnology.

   Policymakersshouldstartthinkingnowabouthowtomakesuretheappearanceofdriverlessvehiclesdoesn'textendtheworstaspectsofthecar-controlledtransportationsystemwehavetoday.Thecomingtechnologicaladvancementpresentsachanceforcitiesandstatestodeveloptransportationsystemsdesignedtomovemorepeople,and

moreaffordably.Thecarofthefutureiscoming.Wejusthavetoplanforit.

47.Accordingtotheauthor,attentionshouldbepaidtohowdriverlesscarscan__________.

A.helpdealwithtransportation-relatedproblems

B.providebetterservicestocustomers

C.causedamagetoourenvironment

D.makesomepeoplelosejobs

48.Asfordriverlesscars,whatistheauthor'smajorconcern?

A.Safety.

B.Sideeffects.

C.Affordability.

D.Management.

49.Whatdoestheunderlinedword“fielded”inParagraph4probablymean?

A.Employed.

B.Replaced.

C.Shared.

D.Reduced.

50.Whatistheauthor'sattitudetothefutureofself-drivingcars?

A.Doubtful.

B.Positive.

C.Disapproving.

D.Sympathetic

第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,共10分)

   根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

WhyDoWeGetAngry?

   Angerseemssimplewhenwearefeelingit,butthecausesofangerarevarious.Knowingthesecausescanmakeusexamineourbehavior,andcorrectbadhabits.Themainreasonswegetangryaretriggering(触发)events,personalitytraits(特征),andourassessmentofsituations.51 

Triggeringeventsforangeraresomanythattodescribethemallwouldtakehundredsofpages.However,herearesomeexamples:beingcutoffintraffic,adeadlineapproaching,experiencingphysicalpain,andmuchmore._52 Thereasonwhysomeoneistriggeredbysomethingandothersarenotisoftenduetoone'spersonalhistoryandpsychologicaltraits.

Eachperson.nomatterwhotheyare,haspsychologicalimbalances.Peoplewhohavepersonalitytraitsthatconncctwithcompetitivenessandlowupsettolerancearemuchmorelikelytogetangry. 53  Also,sometimespre-angerdoesnothavetodowithalastingcondition,butratheratemporarystatebeforeatriggeringeventhasoccurred.

____54  Sometimesevenroutineoccurrencesbecomesourcesofpre-anger,orangeritself.Sometimesignoranceandnegative(消极的)outlooksonsituationscancreateanger.

____55  However,angercaneasilyturnviolent,anditisbesttoknowthereasonsforangertoappearinordertopreventitspresence.Withthesemainreasonsinmind,wecanevaluateourlevelofangerthroughoutthedayandpreventcasesofoutburstsbycomprehendingthereasonsforourfeelings.

A.Ourattitudeandviewpointonsituationscancreateangerwithinusaswell.

B.Butsometypesofsituationscanhelpustogetridoftheoccurrenceofanger.

C.Angerisrarelylookeduponasabeneficialcharactertrait,andisusuallyadvisedtoreduceit.

D.Angerisaparticularlystrongfeelingandmaybepeoplethinkthattheyhavereasonstofeelangry.

E.Havingthesepersonalitytraitsimpliesthepre-angerstate,whereangerisinthebackgroundofyourmind.

F.Understandingthesereasonswillcontrolourownangerifwearewillingtoevaluateourselveswithacriticaleye.

G.Noteveryoneactsthesameinresponsetoevents,andthatiswhywhattriggersonepersonmayormaynottriggeranother.

第三部分:书面表达(共两节,35分)

第一节(15分)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,你的英国朋友Jim在给你的邮件中提到他

对中国文化感兴趣,计划明年来北京上大学。他向你咨询相关信息。请给他回邮件,内容包括:

1.表示欢迎;

2.推荐他上哪所大学;

3.建议他做哪些准备工作。

注意:1.词数不少于50;

2.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

DearJim,

___________

Yours

LiHua

(请务必将作文写在答题卡指定区域内)

第二节(20分)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英

文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。

注意:词数不少于60。

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